William & Mary Quarterly
The OI is an independent research organization sponsored by William & Mary.
The Abolition of the Slave Trade and the Transformation of the South-Central African Interior during the Nineteenth Century
David M. Gordon
The interactive map displays three main categories. These are:
Migrants, Traders, and Caravan Routes
Indicates armed intruders into the south-central African interior:
The Kololo and Ngoni were armed bands of men who emanated from southern African interior, linked to the violent expansion of the British settlement at the Cape and the slave raiding of the trekboers, Griquas, and Portuguese.
The Swahili were trading caravans under control of armed men from the Swahili coast.
The Luso-African caravan routes linked the interior with Portuguese-controlled ports on the east and west coasts and consisted of Chokwe, Ovimbundu, and Chikunda traders
Polities and Peoples
Indicates the most influential political and cultural affiliations in the south-central African interior.
Trading Centers and Capitals
Indicates the political capitals of trading kingdoms and coastal entrepôts.
Select polities of south-central Africa during the nineteenth century. Details for the south-central African interior polities come from Jan Vansina, Kingdoms of the Savanna (1966; repr., Madison, Wis., 1968), 166–67. For West Africa, see Joseph C. Miller, Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730–1830 (Madison, Wis., 1988), 24–25, 230, 258, 263. Drawn by Rebecca Wrenn.